The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments. Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds, but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome sequence of the North American green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. We find that A. carolinensis microchromosomes are highly syntenic with chicken microchromosomes, yet do not exhibit the high GC and low repeat content that are characteristic of avian microchromosomes. Also, A. carolinensis mobile elements are very young and diverse-more so than in any other sequenced amniote genome. The GC content of this lizard genome is also unusual in its homogeneity, unlike the regionally variable GC content found in mammals and birds. We describe and assign sequence to the previously unknown A. carolinensis X chromosome. Comparative gene analysis shows that amniote egg proteins have evolved significantly more rapidly than other proteins. An anole phylogeny resolves basal branches to illuminate the history of their repeated adaptive radiations.
Alfoldi, JessicaDi Palma, FedericaGrabherr, ManfredWilliams, ChristinaKong, LeshengMauceli, EvanRussell, PamelaLowe, Craig BGlor, Richard EJaffe, Jacob DRay, David ABoissinot, StephaneShedlock, Andrew MBotka, ChristopherCastoe, Todd AColbourne, John KFujita, Matthew KMoreno, Ricardo Godinezten Hallers, Boudewijn FHaussler, DavidHeger, AndreasHeiman, DavidJanes, Daniel EJohnson, Jeremyde Jong, Pieter JKoriabine, Maxim YLara, MarciaNovick, Peter AOrgan, Chris LPeach, Sally EPoe, StevenPollock, David Dde Queiroz, KevinSanger, ThomasSearle, SteveSmith, Jeremy DSmith, ZacharySwofford, RossTurner-Maier, JasonWade, JuliYoung, SarahZadissa, AmonidaEdwards, Scott VGlenn, Travis CSchneider, Christopher JLosos, Jonathan BLander, Eric SBreen, MatthewPonting, Chris PLindblad-Toh, KerstinengBB/F007590/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United KingdomMC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United KingdomU54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/U54 HG003067-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/Comparative StudyResearch Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.England2011/09/02 06:00Nature. 2011 Aug 31;477(7366):587-91. doi: 10.1038/nature10390.